Links, otherwise known as hyperlinks, are defined using the
<a> tag - otherwise known as the anchor element.
To create a hyperlink, you use the
<a> tag in conjunction with the href attribute (href stands for Hypertext Reference). The value of the href attribute is the URL, or, location of where the link is pointing to.
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Hypertext references can use absolute URLS, relative URLs, or root relative URLs.
- This refers to a URL where the full path is provided. For example, http://www.quackit.com/html/tutorial/
- This refers to a URL where only the path, relative to the current location, is provided. For example, if we want to reference the http://www.quackit.com/html/tutorial/ URL, and our current location is http://www.quackit.com/html/, we would use tutorial/
- root relative
- This refers to a URL where only the path, relative to the domain's root, is provided. For example, if we want to reference the http://www.quackit.com/html/tutorial/ URL, and the current location is http://www.quackit.com/html/, we would use /html/tutorial/. The forward slash indicates the domain's root. This way, no matter where your file is located, you can always use this method to determine the path, even if you don't know what the domain name will eventually be.
You can nominate whether to open the URL in a new window or the current window. You do this with the
target attribute. For example,
target="_blank" opens the URL in a new window.
The target attribute can have the following possible values:
|_blank||Opens the URL in a new browser window.|
|_self||Loads the URL in the current browser window.|
|_parent||Loads the URL into the parent frame (still within the current browser window). This is only applicable when using frames.|
|_top||Loads the URL in the current browser window, but cancelling out any frames. Therefore, if frames were being used, they aren't any longer.|
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You can make your links "jump" to other sections within the same page (or another page).
To do this, you need to create two pieces of code - one for the hyperlink (this is what the user will click on), and one for the anchor (this is where they will end up).
This page uses a named anchor. I did this by performing the steps below:
- I created the anchor first (where the user will end up):
<h2>Link Targets<a id="link_targets"></a></h2>
- I then created the hyperlink (what the user will click on). This is done by linking to the id of the named anchor. You need to preceed the name with a hash (#) symbol:
<a href="http://www.quackit.com/html/tutorial/html_links.cfm#link_targets">Link Targets</a>
This results in:
Prior to HTML5, named anchors used the
name attribute. However this attribute is obsolete in HTML5 and you should use the
id attribute instead (as outlined above).
When you click on the above link, this page should jump up to the "Link Targets" section (above). You can either use your back button, or scroll down the page to get back here.
You're back? Good, now lets move on to email links.
You can create a hyperlink to an email address. To do this, use the
mailto attribute in your anchor tag.
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You can go a step further than this. You can auto-complete the subject line for your users, and even the body of the email. You do this appending
body parameters to the email address.
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You can specify a default URL for all links on the page to start with. You do this by placing the
base tag (in conjunction with the
href attribute) in the document's
Example HTML Code:
<head> <base url="http://www.quackit.com"> </head>