CSS rotate() Function

The CSS rotate() function is used to rotate elements in a two-dimensional space.

The rotate() function rotates an element based on the angle that you provide as an argument. You can provide the angle in degrees, gradians, radians, or turns.

Degrees

There are 360 degrees in a full circle. The unit identifier for degrees is deg.

Here's an example of using degrees with the rotate() function:

Gradians

There are 400 gradians in a full circle. The unit identifier for gradians is grad.

Gradians are also known as "gons" or "grades" (although these aren't valid unit identifiers — you should still use grad as the unit identifier).

Here's an example of using gradians:

Radians

There are 2Ï€ radians in a full circle. The unit identifier for radians is rad.

Here's an example of using radians:

Turns

There is 1 turn in a full circle. The unit identifier for turns is turn.

Here's an example of using turns:

Negative Values

You can also use negative values for the angle. A negative value will rotate the element in a counter-clockwise direction.

Example:

Adding transform-origin

The default origin for the rotation is 50% 50%. You can use transform-origin to adjust the origin of the transformation:

Official Syntax

The official syntax of the rotate() function is as follows:

rotate() = rotate( <angle> )

Possible Values

The rotate() function accepts the <angle> parameter that defines the angle for the rotation. This angle can be represented with any of the following units:

deg
Degrees. There are 360 degrees in a full circle.
grad
Gradians, also known as "gons" or "grades" (although these aren't valid unit identifiers — you should still use grad as the unit identifier). There are 400 gradians in a full circle.
rad
Radians. There are 2Ï€ radians in a full circle.
deg
Turns. There is 1 turn in a full circle.

Zero Angles

The unit identifier is optional for zero angles. For example, both rotate(0deg) and rotate(0) are valid (but rotate(45) is not).

CSS Specifications

Browser Support

The following table provided by Caniuse.com shows the level of browser support for this feature.